Automatically renew internal SSL certificates (DRAC and Windows)

A bunch of our DRACs have certificates that are about to expire.  I know I could go in and generate a new CSR in each web interface, copy them into the AD Certificate Services, and upload the results (that's how the previous admin did it) but.... I'm lazy.

Plus, new certificates generated that way still give a big warning since Chrome 58-- they don't have the X509v3 SAN extension which is now mandatory apparently.

C:\> "\Program Files\Dell\SysMgt\rac5\racadm.exe" -r dracname.dom.ain -u root -p redacted sslcsrgen -g -f dracname.dom.ain.csr
Security Alert: Certificate is invalid - Name on Certificate is invalid or does not match site name
Continuing execution. Use -S option for racadm to stop execution on certificate-related errors.
CSR generated and downloaded from RAC successfully

C:\> certreq -submit -attrib "san:dns=dracname.dom.ain\nCertificateTemplate: WebServer" dracname.dom.ain.csr dracname.dom.ain.crt
Active Directory Enrollment Policy
RequestId: 104238
RequestId: "104238"
Certificate retrieved(Issued) Issued  The certificate validity period will be shorter than the WebServer Certificate Tem
plate specifies, because the template validity period is longer than the maximum certificate validity period allowed by 
the CA.  Consider renewing the CA certificate, reducing the template validity period, or increasing the registry validit
y period.

C:\> "\Program Files\Dell\SysMgt\rac5\racadm.exe" -r dracname.dom.ain -u root -p redacted sslcertupload -t 1 -f dracname.dom.ain.crt
Security Alert: Certificate is invalid - Name on Certificate is invalid or does not match site name
Continuing execution. Use -S option for racadm to stop execution on certificate-related errors.
Certificate successfully uploaded to the RAC. The RAC will now
reset to enable the new certificate and may be offline temporarily.

C:\> "\Program Files\Dell\SysMgt\rac5\racadm.exe" -r dracname.dom.ain -u root -p redacted sslcertview -t 1
Serial Number            : redacted

Subject Information:
Country Code (CC)        : AU
State (S)                : Some-State
Locality (L)             : MyTown
Organization (O)         : Internet Widgits Pty Ltd
Organizational Unit (OU) : World Wide Web Pty Ltd
Common Name (CN)         : *.dom.ain

Issuer Information:
Common Name (CN)         : AD DOM.AIN Root Trust CA

Valid From               : Mar  6 16:01:02 2018 GMT
Valid To                 : Nov  6 15:13:19 2019 GMT

And the warning goes away for another year. And it took me less time to figure out how to automate it (throw the above commands into a .bat) than it would have to loop through all of them with a browser!



iPhone backup that wasn't

Spent a bit of time this weekend trying to help my cousin copy everything off of her iPhone 6, so that it can be wiped and transferred to another person.  But since I'm stubborn and contrary, I didn't want to do it in iTunes (plus I didn't have her password)...

Enter libimobiledevice, and idevicebackup, referenced by a nice post from Santoku Linux https://santoku-linux.com/howto/mobile-forensics/howto-create-a-logical-backup-of-an-ios-device-using-libimobiledevice-on-santoku-linux/ .  But since I'm stubborn and contrary, the CD image wouldn't install in VirtualBox on my laptop.  Sigh.  Ok, build from source.  Vagrant ubuntu, then clone libimobiledevice and just about all the other pieces of their github, run idevicebackup and... well, this iPhone is too new, try using idevicebackup2.  Cool, backing up, ##### marks dancing across the screen in little boxes, stuff being written unencrypted to disk, excellent.

Verify that the backup is readable and not encrypted, sweeet.  Now what did I get in my 2.5GB of disk space?  I still have no idea.

idevicebackup has an "unback" command that should convert the plist and SQLite files into a meaningful folder structure, which is said to work on version of IOS > 6.  Unfortunately, the feature on the phone (which needs to be plugged in) that they were using to read and translate the backup was broken between IOS 10.3.0 and 10.3.1 (this fact was, and still is undocumented in the toolset, except for the closed github issue).  So unback is not available.

End state: 2.5GB of possibly-useful-in-the-future data, and a wiped iPhone.   Oh well, that's life on the bleeding edge of tech.


What I've learned today

A couple of useful Java tricks that I can't find consolidated elsewhere on the web:

Locking down Java: 

I have a Java instance that runs just my one application. (for example, /opt/foo/jre/bin/java) This application talks across systems, and can be set to use SSL. I don't want to pay for a "real" certificate-- I'll use our internal CA, besides, I don't really want to trust Verisign or any of the other 300+ CAs that Oracle/IBM have decided they like. (No offense intended, just paranoia about MITM attacks within my LAN)

Let's assume that I have this part working, and that SSL is being served happily on the first server.
I'll start by extracting the certificate chain from that first server:
:| openssl s_client -host firstinstance -port 8443 -prexit \
           -showcerts >firstinstance.crt
(No, that's not an emotionless command emoticon, it's a pipe)

From there, I can manipulate the Java keystore to trust (or not trust) my targets.
keytool -import -alias firstinstance -file firstinstance.crt \
  -keystore paranoid.jks -storepass changeme -noprompt \
  && cp paranoid.jks /opt/foo/jre/lib/security/cacerts

Did it work?:

Well, let's check.  Using the same Java environment as our app:
$ JRE_HOME=/opt/foo/jre
$ JAVA_HOME=/opt/foo/jre
$ /opt/foo/jre/bin/java -cp . SSLPoke firstinstance 8443
Successfully connected
In theory, a restart of the app should have it pick up the new (single-entry) list of trusted certificates. In practice...

WTF file is it loading from?

Hidden somewhere in the depths of the startup script for the app, something gets redefined so that instead of looking in $JAVA_HOME/lib/security/cacerts (which has been nicely cleaned up), it used /opt/foo/lib/security/cacerts. (But of course, I didn't know that until.. Hammer)
# apt-get install -y sysdig
# sysdig proc.name=java and evt.type=open | grep cacerts & systemctl restart foo
#7554308 14:25:48.107476643 3 java (6613) < open fd=22(/opt/foo/lib/security/cacerts) name=/opt/foo/lib/security/cacerts flags=1(O_RDONLY) mode=0 
Ah, there's the file I need to mangle for my application.

You may have noticed I slipped in the SSLPoke command above. That's a fetch of https://confluence.atlassian.com/download/attachments/117455/SSLPoke.java -- Thanks, #Atlassian!


systemd unit file names

TL;DR: custom systemd unit files can not have "-" in their name, or at least mine can't.

I like to have third-party software installed in a version-specific directory.  In particular, I'm trying to get Elasticsearch to live in /opt/elasticsearch-2.4.0/ with a symlink /opt/elasticsearch -> /opt/elasticsearch-2.4.0, especially for service software that I might need to run multiple versions.  I'm using Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial/LTS) so I'm forced to deal with systemd files that are not delivered OOTTB.  For comparison, I can install the .deb that elastic.co distributes, but that installs itself in /usr/, which means only one version.

Fortunately, the unit file is very simple:

Description=Elasticsearch 2.4.0




I save this as /usr/lib/systemd/system/elasticsearch-2.4.0.service, and... nothing happens.  Install the .deb, check that it has the right unit files (starts service ok).  copy /usr/lib/systemd/system/elasticsearch.service as elasticsearch-2.4.0.service -- This should use the exact same config options, just run with a different service name, and nothing.  Purge the .deb and put my unit file (above) in elasticsearch.service, and it runs.

The closest I can come to documentation of why servicename -dash- something is in the man page:
Some unit names reflect paths existing in the file system namespace.  Example: a device unit dev-sda.device [...]
 So there might be something special about unit names with a dash in them?  Hmm, mv elasticsearch.service elasticsearch_2.4.0.service ; systemctl daemon-reload ; service elasticsearch_2.4.0 start.  By golly, that works.

I guess I'll change the service naming.  (But note, cfengine3-web is apparently a perfectly valid systemd unit name for CFEngine Enterprise)


Small Business Server crash and recovery

I'm the "tech guy" for my parents' small business, and the new point of sale software for them runs on top of MSSQL on Windows Server.

Step 1: Buy a system with Windows Server 2012 on it.  (Check.  $900 from Microcenter)
Step 2: Take it home and set it up so that the POS people can install their software on it.
Step 3: ???
Step 4: Profit.

Actually, I'm stuck in the middle of step 2.  I have to take this opportunity to make it more enterprisey, even though I have very little experience with modern Windows Server technologies... But how hard can it be?  I just want a server that can sit in their basement, run MSSQL and the POS app, plus do other little tasks, like print queueing and that sort of thing... And allow employees and owners to connect in remotely so that they can travel... And maybe help protect the terminals' web browsers from malware... and I need to be able to support it remotely.  And....

So I figure I have to do all this stuff anyway, I'll just go ahead and set it all up: Active Directory, VPN, Internet gateway/proxy, etc.  MSSQL will be the POS guy's problem :)

On the bright side, the server I bought has a Supermicro motherboard that supports KVMoverIP via IPMI.  Which means I can sit with my laptop on the couch, while the server sits in the basement without a keyboard or monitor.  Unfortunately, "in the basement" at the moment means in the middle of a construction zone.  The only flat place to put it (that was close enough to the shelf that has my Internet router) was on top of the washing machine.  Which apparently vibrates enough when it's running to bounce everything off of it.  So the server fell the 5 feet to our new concrete floor.  Crash.

Both hard drives are misbeaving, and there are broken platic bits of the front of the case.

Luckily, I have a spare 1TB hard drive in stock.